Electrolytic Scale Reduction-ESR™
The unit is composed of a metallic cylindrical reaction chamber, with a central titanium electrode. Less than 2 amps of electrical current is passed from the central anode to the cylindrical cathode which causes a high pH in the vicinity of the cathode. High pH causes scale to be deposited in the reactor.
The water is not soft at the outlet of the ESR, but the scale forming ion content has been reduced to a level that prevents precipitation in the RO membranes.
The ESR will precipitate all scale forming ions, not just magnesium and calcium but any other ions that are susceptible to dropping out of the liquid at high pH e.g. Silica, Ferum, Manganese etc.
In addition to the scale precipitation reaction, free chlorine is generated in the reactors:
Cl– + H+ → HCl
HCl + HCl → Cl2 + H2
The gaseous H2 is immediately dissolved back into the water and is not released.
The Cl2 is generated in small amounts, and serves to control bio-growth in the ESR without added chemicals.
ESR Maintenance requirements:
Emptying: the cylinders have to be emptied once a month, this can vary per site conditions. The process involves opening the bottom cylinder valves and collecting the sand like scale. The top of the reactor can also be opened and the inside hosed clean. For larger systems – automatic washdown is available.
No replacement of electrodes or servicing of electrical components needed.
ESR Technical operating data:
The ESR operation is followed by monitoring the current. If the current is within the design range then the unit is operating correctly.
Measurement of the removal of the ions and comparison of inlet to outlet is challenging with standard instrumentation. Hand held kits are not usually reliably sensitive below 10 ppm of hardness as CaCO3 – so the ion reduction is hard to measure directly.
ESR power consumption:
Power for ESR per m3/hr flow: 0.2-0.4 kW depending on raw water ion content.
As the ESR is based on one standard reactor, 4″ cylinder with anode, this can be scaled to any flow rate.
The number of skids is configured per the raw water quality, flow rate and RO configuration.